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Ethernet Local Area Networks
Fundamentals overview LANs, MAC and Frames
In modern environments you will find that, at a general level, computer data networks can be categorized in two types:
  • Local Area Networks - connecting nearby devices, in the same room, building or campus of buildings
  • Wide Area Networks - devices are somewhat geographically separated
The aggregate use of these two types of networks covers most of the communication requirements of modern businesses, they deliver data from one endpoint to another.

The Ethernet or Wired LAN

Ethernet is a general reference to any cable that conforms to any of several Ethernet Standards. However, the cables used for the links use copper wires more often than not.
In contrast to the Wired LAN, the Wireless LAN or WLAN uses radio-frequencies to transmit data between nodes instead of wires for the links.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) define the required elements to build an Ethernet-based Local Area Network. These elements, among others include:

Devices

Assuming an Ethernet-only Local Area Network we would need an Ethernet LAN _switch, _the switch's purpose is to increase the amount of ports that can be used to connect wires terminating into the client machines - this concept is also known as port density. These client machines are connected via their network interface card's Ethernet port using an Ethernet cable.

Cabling

Ethernet standards from Wikipedia's page on IEEE 802.3:
"IEEE 802.3 is a working group and a collection of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards produced by the working group defining the physical layer and data link layer's media access control (MAC) of wired Ethernet. This is generally a local area network (LAN) technology with some wide area network (WAN) applications. Physical connections are made between nodes and/or infrastructure devices (hubs, switches, routers) by various types of copper or fiber cable.
802.3 is a technology that supports the IEEE 802.1 network architecture.
802.3 also defines LAN access method using CSMA/CD."
Ethernet standard
Date
Description
Experimental Ethernet
1973
2.94 Mbit/s (367 kB/s) over coaxial cable (coax) bus. Single byte node address unique only to individual network.
Ethernet I (DIX v1.0)
1980
10 Mbit/s (1.25 MB/s) over thick coax. Frames have a Type field. This frame format is used on all forms of Ethernet by protocols in the Internet protocol suite. Six byte MAC address.
Ethernet II (DIX v2.0)
1982
IEEE 802.3 standard
1983
10BASE5 10 Mbit/s (1.25 MB/s) over thick coax. Same as Ethernet II (above) except Type field is replaced by Length, and an 802.2 LLC header follows the 802.3 header. Based on the CSMA/CD Process.
802.3a
1985
10BASE2 10 Mbit/s (1.25 MB/s) over thin Coax (a.k.a. thinnet or cheapernet)
802.3b
1985
10BROAD36
802.3c
1985
10 Mbit/s (1.25 MB/s) repeater specs
802.3-1985
1985
a revision of the base standard from 1983
802.3e
1987
1BASE5 or StarLAN
802.3i
1990
10BASE-T 10 Mbit/s (1.25 MB/s) over twisted pair
802.3j
1993
10BASE-F 10 Mbit/s (1.25 MB/s) over Fiber-Optic
802.3q
1993
GDMO (ISO 10164-4) format for Layer Managed Objects
802.3u
1995
100BASE-TX, 100BASE-T4, 100BASE-FX Fast Ethernet at 100 Mbit/s (12.5 MB/s) with autonegotiation
802.3x
1997
Full Duplex and flow control; also incorporates DIX framing, so there's no longer a DIX/802.3 split
802.3y
1998
100BASE-T2 100 Mbit/s (12.5 MB/s) over voice-grade twisted pair
802.3z
1998-07
1000BASE-X Gbit/s Ethernet over Fiber-Optic at 1 Gbit/s (125 MB/s)
802.3-1998
1998-07
(802.3aa) A revision of base standard incorporating the above amendments and errata
802.3ab
1999-06
1000BASE-T Gbit/s Ethernet over twisted pair at 1 Gbit/s (125 MB/s)
802.3ac
1998-09
Max frame size extended to 1522 bytes (to allow "Q-tag") The Q-tag includes 802.1Q VLAN information and 802.1p priority information.
802.3ad
2000-03
Link aggregation for parallel links, since moved to IEEE 802.1AX
802.3-2002
2002-01
(802.3ag) A revision of base standard incorporating the three prior amendments and errata
802.3ae
2002-06
10 Gigabit Ethernet over fiber; 10GBASE-SR, 10GBASE-LR, 10GBASE-ER, 10GBASE-SW, 10GBASE-LW, 10GBASE-EW
802.3af
2003-06
802.3ak
2004-02
10GBASE-CX4 10 Gbit/s (1,250 MB/s) Ethernet over twinaxial cables
802.3-2005
2005-06
(802.3am) A revision of base standard incorporating the four prior amendments and errata.
802.3an
2006-06
10GBASE-T 10 Gbit/s (1,250 MB/s) Ethernet over unshielded twisted pair (UTP)
802.3ap
2007-03
Backplane Ethernet (1 and 10 Gbit/s (125 and 1,250 MB/s) over printed circuit boards)
802.3aq
2006-09
10GBASE-LRM 10 Gbit/s (1,250 MB/s) Ethernet over multimode fiber
P802.3ar
Cancelled
Congestion management (withdrawn)
802.3as
2006-09
Frame expansion
802.3at
2009-09
Power over Ethernet enhancements (25.5 W)
802.3au
2006-06
Isolation requirements for Power over Ethernet (802.3-2005/Cor 1)
802.3av
2009-09
10 Gbit/s EPON
802.3aw
2007-06
Fixed an equation in the publication of 10GBASE-T (released as 802.3-2005/Cor 2)
802.3ax
2008-11
Link aggregation – moved to and approved as 802.1AX
802.3-2008
2008-12
(802.3ay) A revision of base standard incorporating the 802.3an/ap/aq/as amendments, two corrigenda and errata.
802.3ba
2010-06
40 Gbit/s and 100 Gbit/s Ethernet. 40 Gbit/s over 1 m backplane, 10 m Cu cable assembly (4×25 Gbit or 10×10 Gbit lanes) and 100 m of MMF and 100 Gbit/s up to 10 m of Cu cable assembly, 100 m of MMF or 40 km of SMF respectively
802.3-2008/Cor 1
2009
(802.3bb) Increase Pause Reaction Delay timings which are insufficient for 10 Gbit/s (workgroup name was 802.3bb)
802.3bc
2009-09
Move and update Ethernet related TLVs (type, length, values), previously specified in Annex F of IEEE 802.1AB (LLDP) to 802.3.
802.3bd
2011-06
Priority-based Flow Control. An amendment by the IEEE 802.1 Data Center Bridging Task Group (802.1Qbb) to develop an amendment to IEEE Std 802.3 to add a MAC Control Frame to support IEEE 802.1Qbb Priority-based Flow Control.
802.3.1
2011-05
(802.3be) MIB definitions for Ethernet. It consolidates the Ethernet related MIBs present in Annex 30A&B, various IETF RFCs, and 802.1AB annex F into one master document with a machine readable extract. (workgroup name was P802.3be)
802.3bf
2011-05
Provide an accurate indication of the transmission and reception initiation times of certain packets as required to support IEEE P802.1AS.
802.3bg
2011-03
Provide a 40 Gbit/s PMD which is optically compatible with existing carrier SMF 40 Gbit/s client interfaces (OTU3/STM-256/OC-768/40G POS).
802.3-2012
2012-08
(802.3bh) A revision of base standard incorporating the 802.3at/av/az/ba/bc/bd/bf/bg amendments, a corrigenda and errata.
802.3bj
2014-06
Define a 4-lane 100 Gbit/s backplane PHY for operation over links consistent with copper traces on "improved FR-4" (as defined by IEEE P802.3ap or better materials to be defined by the Task Force) with lengths up to at least 1 m and a 4-lane 100 Gbit/s PHY for operation over links consistent with copper twinaxial cables with lengths up to at least 5 m.
802.3bk
2013-08
This amendment to IEEE Std 802.3 defines the physical layer specifications and management parameters for EPON operation on point-to-multipoint passive optical networks supporting extended power budget classes of PX30, PX40, PRX40, and PR40 PMDs.
802.3bm
2015-02
100G/40G Ethernet for optical fiber
802.3bn
2016-09
10G-EPON and 10GPASS-XR, passive optical networks over coax
802.3bp
2016-06
1000BASE-T1 – Gigabit Ethernet over a single twisted pair, automotive & industrial environments
802.3bq
2016-06
25G/40GBASE-T for 4-pair balanced twisted-pair cabling with 2 connectors over 30 m distances
802.3br
2016-06
Specification and Management Parameters for Interspersing Express Traffic
802.3bs
2017-12
200GbE (200 Gbit/s) over single-mode fiber and 400GbE (400 Gbit/s) over optical physical media
802.3bt
2018-09
third generation Power over Ethernet with up to 100 W using all 4 pairs balanced twisted-pair cabling (4PPoE), including 10GBASE-T, lower standby power and specific enhancements to support IoT applications (e.g. lighting, sensors, building automation).
802.3bu
2016-12
Power over Data Lines (PoDL) for single twisted-pair Ethernet (100BASE-T1)
802.3bv
2017-02
Gigabit Ethernet over plastic optical fiber (POF)
802.3bw
2015-10
100BASE-T1 – 100 Mbit/s Ethernet over a single twisted pair for automotive applications
802.3-2015
2015-09
802.3bx – a new consolidated revision of the 802.3 standard including amendments 802.3bk/bj/bm
802.3by
2016-06
Optical fiber, twinax and backplane 25 Gigabit Ethernet[6]
802.3bz
2016-09
2.5GBASE-T and 5GBASE-T – 2.5 Gigabit and 5 Gigabit Ethernet over Cat-5/Cat-6 twisted pair
802.3ca
2020-06
100G-EPON – 25, 50, and 100 Gbit/s over Ethernet Passive Optical Networks
802.3cb
2018-09
2.5 Gbit/s and 5 Gbit/s Operation over Backplane
802.3cc
2017-12
25 Gbit/s over Single Mode Fiber
802.3cd
2018-12
Media Access Control Parameters for 50 Gbit/s and Physical Layers and Management Parameters for 50, 100, and 200 Gbit/s Operation
802.3ce
2017-03
Multilane Timestamping
802.3cf
2019-03
YANG Data Model Definitions
802.3cg
2019-11
10 Mbit/s Single Twisted Pair Ethernet
802.3ch
2020-06
Multi-Gig Automotive Ethernet (2.5, 5, 10 Gbit/s) over 15 m with optional PoDL
802.3-2018
2018-08
802.3cj – 802.3-2015 maintenance, merge recent amendments bn/bp/bq/br/bs/bw/bu/bv/by/bz/cc/ce
802.3ck
(TBD)
100, 200, and 400 Gbit/s Ethernet using 100 Gbit/s lanes – scheduled for fall 2021
802.3cm
2020-01
400 Gbit/s over multimode fiber (four and eight pairs, 100 m)
802.3cn
2019-11
50 Gbit/s (40 km), 100 Gbit/s (80 km), 200 Gbit/s (four λ, 40 km), and 400 Gbit/s (eight λ, 40 km and single λ, 80 km over DWDM) over Single-Mode Fiber and DWDM
802.3cp
(TBD)
10/25/50 Gbit/s single-strand optical access with at least 10/20/40 km reach – scheduled for summer 2021
802.3cq
2020-01
Power over Ethernet over 2 pairs (maintenance)
802.3cr
(TBD)
Isolation (maintenance)
802.3cs
(TBD)
"Super-PON" – increased-reach, 10 Gbit/s optical access with at least 50 km reach and 1:64 split ratio per wavelength pair, 16 wavelength pairs – scheduled for summer 2021
802.3ct
(TBD)
100 Gbit/s over DWDM systems (80 km reach using coherent modulation) – scheduled for fall 2021
802.3cu
(TBD)
100 Gbit/s and 400 Gbit/s over SMF using 100 Gbit/s lanes – scheduled for early 2021
802.3cv
(TBD)
Power over Ethernet maintenance
802.3cw
(TBD)
400 Gbit/s over DWDM Systems
802.3cx
(TBD)
Improved PTP Timestamping Accuracy
802.3cy
(TBD)
Greater than 10 Gbit/s Electrical Automotive Ethernet
802.3cz
(TBD)
Multi-Gigabit Optical Automotive Ethernet
802.3da
(TBD)
10 Mb/s Operation over Single Balanced Pair Multidrop Segments
802.3db
(TBD)
100 Gbit/s, 200 Gbit/s, and 400 Gbit/s Operation over Optical Fiber using 100 Gbit/s Signaling

Connector Terminals or Interfaces

Protocol Rules

Last modified 8d ago