Assuming an Ethernet-only Local Area Network we would need an Ethernet LAN _switch, _the switch's purpose is to increase the amount of ports that can be used to connect wires terminating into the client machines - this concept is also known as port density. These client machines are connected via their network interface card's Ethernet port using an Ethernet cable.
Ethernet standards from Wikipedia's page on IEEE 802.3:
40 Gbit/s and 100 Gbit/s Ethernet. 40 Gbit/s over 1 m backplane, 10 m Cu cable assembly (4×25 Gbit or 10×10 Gbit lanes) and 100 m of MMF and 100 Gbit/s up to 10 m of Cu cable assembly, 100 m of MMF or 40 km of SMF respectively
(802.3bb) Increase Pause Reaction Delay timings which are insufficient for 10 Gbit/s (workgroup name was 802.3bb)
Move and update Ethernet related TLVs (type, length, values), previously specified in Annex F of IEEE 802.1AB (LLDP) to 802.3.
Priority-based Flow Control. An amendment by the IEEE 802.1Data Center Bridging Task Group (802.1Qbb) to develop an amendment to IEEE Std 802.3 to add a MAC Control Frame to support IEEE 802.1Qbb Priority-based Flow Control.
(802.3be) MIB definitions for Ethernet. It consolidates the Ethernet related MIBs present in Annex 30A&B, various IETFRFCs, and 802.1AB annex F into one master document with a machine readable extract. (workgroup name was P802.3be)
Provide an accurate indication of the transmission and reception initiation times of certain packets as required to support IEEE P802.1AS.
(802.3bh) A revision of base standard incorporating the 802.3at/av/az/ba/bc/bd/bf/bg amendments, a corrigenda and errata.
Define a 4-lane 100 Gbit/s backplane PHY for operation over links consistent with copper traces on "improved FR-4" (as defined by IEEE P802.3ap or better materials to be defined by the Task Force) with lengths up to at least 1 m and a 4-lane 100 Gbit/s PHY for operation over links consistent with copper twinaxial cables with lengths up to at least 5 m.
This amendment to IEEE Std 802.3 defines the physical layer specifications and management parameters for EPON operation on point-to-multipoint passive optical networks supporting extended power budget classes of PX30, PX40, PRX40, and PR40 PMDs.
third generation Power over Ethernet with up to 100 W using all 4 pairs balanced twisted-pair cabling (4PPoE), including 10GBASE-T, lower standby power and specific enhancements to support IoT applications (e.g. lighting, sensors, building automation).